Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease with significant extrapulmonary effects, which affect the disease severity to varying extents in individual patients. Its pulmonary component is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. The airflow limitation is usually progressive and associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lung to noxious particles or gases (GOLD, 2009)
Key Facts about COPD (NHLBI, 2009 and GOLD, 2009).
- While other major causes of death have been decreasing, COPD mortality has continued to rise.
- COPD is now the 4th leading cause of death in the United States.
- 12 million Americans are diagnosed with COPD; research shows that many do not get optimal treatment.
- An additional 12 million Americans may have COPD and remain undiagnosed.
- Worldwide, cigarette smoking is the most commonly encountered risk factor for COPD and smoking cessation is the only intervention that has been shown to modify the course of the disease
Bronchodilator medications are central to symptom management in COPD. (GOLD, 2009)
- Bronchodilators are prescribed on an as-needed or on a regular basis to prevent or reduce symptoms.
- Long-acting inhaled bronchodilators are more effective and convenient.
- Combining bronchodilators of different pharmacological classes has been shown to improve efficacy (Van Noord, 2006; Combivent Package Insert) and may decrease the risk of side effects compared to increasing the dose of a single bronchodilator.
- As the course of disease progresses (GOLD Stage III or beyond with exacerbations), the addition of regular treatment with inhaled glucocorticosteroids to bronchodilator treatment is appropriate
In accordance with treatment recommendations as outlined in GOLD and other International Guidelines, Pearl is developing a suite of inhaled products that focuses on the development of combination products in order to optimize the treatment of COPD.
Additional Therapeutic Areas
In addition to COPD, Pearl is developing treatments for other chronic respiratory conditions that are highly prevalent, including asthma and rhinosinusitis.
GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease). Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. National Institutes of Health, updated 2009. Available at: www.goldcopd.org.
National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) COPD Learn More Breath Better. Available at www.nhlbi.nih.gov.
Van Noord JA, Aumann JL, Janssens E, et al. Effects of Tiotropium With and Without Formoterol on Airflow Obstruction and Resting Hyperinflation in Patients With COPD. Chest 2006;129;509-517